10. What is the development tendency of cabling system in the computer room?
When integrated wiring in the computer room, you should find that there are many computer equipment (such as UPS equipment, etc.) and environmental protection equipment (such as special air conditioners for computer room) in the system. It is precisely because of these equipment that the computer room has become a large energy consumer.
With the vigorous development of modern large-scale data centers and the continuous increase of energy consumption in the computer rooms of data center, in addition to continuing to improve the reliability of the equipment in data center, the establishment of a green, environmentally friendly, and energy-saving computer rooms in data center s is also an important task for the integrated wiring of the computer room.
In the "Guiding Opinions on the Construction Layout of Data Center", it is clearly pointed out that the key to promote green data centers and green power supplies, the power usage effectiveness (PUE) value of large newly-built cloud-computing data centers should be less than 1.5 and that the PUE value of built data centers shall reduce below 2.0 after transformation and upgrading.
With the advent of the green data center and the active call of the national government, more and more users will consider adopting new energy-saving technologies and energy-saving equipment to reduce the energy consumption of computer rooms when integrated wiring in computer rooms, for example, high-efficiency UPS power supply system, low-energy-consumption air-conditioning for computer rooms and intelligent lighting systems for computer rooms, etc.. And various energy-saving technologies and equipment are being developed as well.
What are the differences between copper cables and optical fibers?
Copper cable and optical fiber are two common transmission media in data centers, both of which have anti-interference and excellent confidentiality. The differences between the two are mainly reflected in the following four aspects:
1. Transmission distance: the transmission distance for copper cables generally does not exceed 100M, and the transmission distance for optical fibers can reach 100KM. Optical fiber is more suitable for long-distance transmission.
2. The transmission rate: compared to CAT8 copper lan cable, optical fiber is more advantageous (in terms of transmission rate).
3. Maintenance and management：With simple operation, copper cable has a greater advantage than optical fiber.
4. Price cost: Under the same circumstances, copper cables are one-fifth price or one-sixth price of optical cables, which is more advantageous.
What is a network module?
Network modules can also be called information modules, CAT6 modules, and lan cable modules. They are mainly used to connect devices. Using modules, various low-voltage electrical sockets or connectors can be installed in various panels and wiring boards. It is very simple and convenient to complete the connection with network cables at the other end of the network. Just directly insert a straight-through twisted pair into the network information module (to complete the connection with lan cables at the other end of the network) when in use. At present, the network information module is generally used in the inner wall, which can protect modules from damage and beautify the entire network wiring environment. Because of its stability and durability, it is now used in most network wiring, reducing high costs of bypassed wiring for enterprises. The commonly used network information modules at this stage mainly include 6P6C network information modules, 8P8C network information modules, RCA network information modules, and so on.
What is CAT 6 lan cable and CAT6A lan cable?
CAT 6 lan cable usually refers to Category 6 unshielded network cable, i.e. the sixth-generation standard Ethernet network cable. It complies with the Category 6 standards of ISO/IEC 11801: 2002 and EIA/TIA 568B. Its bandwidth is twice that of CAT5A network cable; and the transmission performance of CAT6 lan cable is much bigger than CAT5A lan cable. It is most suitable for network transmission applications of gigabit rate.
CAT6A lan cable is an upgraded version of CAT6 network cable, so it is also called the "enhanced CAT6 network cable". It also conforms to the standards of ISO/IEC 11801:2002 and EIA/TIA 568-B.2-1. The performance of CAT6A lan cables in aspects such as alien crosstalk is better than that of CAT 6 lan cables. Compared with CAT6 cables, CAT6A cables have a larger outer diameter, a heavier weight, and a larger minimum bending radius. The maximum transmission distance of CAT6A cables is 100m. CAT 6 lan cables can be compatible with CAT 6 and CAT 5 lan cables at the same time. In the process of using, CAT6A lan cable must be grounded to prevent electrostatic interference from electrons generated by long-distance transmission, which will cause packet errors. For ordinary anti-static interference, only a single point of grounding is required. If there is strong current interference outside the network cable or in consideration of safety requirements such as electric shock protection and lightning protection, it must be grounded at multiple points. In addition, during the cabling process of CAT6A lan cables, all the hardware that need to be connected should be shielded products, thus, these products can reflect their excellent shielding performance. And these shielded products include transmission cables, patch panels and modules.
What is Centralized Power over Ethernet (PoE)?
Power over Ethernet lighting-also known as PoE LED lighting-uses direct current (DC) delivered to the luminaire. Not requiring traditional AC wiring, this method uses low-voltage classified cables.
The PoE switch is located in the telecommunications room，supplying power to the LED lighting fixtures. This can bring high efficiency and convenience of centralized management. And individual lamps can be monitored, managed and controlled remotely then.
However, switches used in a centralized PoE environment sometimes limit the available power sent to LED lamps. Depending on the specific type of network switch you deploy and the power level you need (for example, 60 watts per switch port), the switch may only allow you to use 50% to 60% switch ports in order to deliver 60 watts of power. When delivering 60 watts of power per port on a 48-port switch, only 33 of the 48 ports can supply 60 watts of power.
Powering LEDs through PoE does not require any electricians to install or engage in moving, adding, and changing operations, so that project costs can be reduced-- not to mention the energy costs saved after the deployment of LEDs. Without the presence of a qualified electrical contractor, the illumination can be reconfigured according to requirements, and there is no need to find out whether there is an AC power source nearby that can be plugged in during the illumination design process.
What are the polarities of MPO?
In the past 10 years, there are three MPO polarities recognized by the International Standards Organization:
Type-A: Direct connection (1-1; 2-2...... 12-12)
Type-B: Reverse (1-12; 2-11......12-1)
Type-C: Cross (1-2; 2-1...11-12; 12-11)
TIA 568, the TIA(Telecommunication Industry Association) released the latest draft about polarity type at its February 2021 meeting.
Type-U: odd number and even number (the order of one end is 1,3,5,7,9,11,12,10,8,6,4,2; the other end is reversed)
Note: The above MPO only refers to 12 cores.
Research on the influence of the increase of PoE temperature on the service life of the outer sheath of copper cable
Power over Ethernet (PoE) technology is increasingly applied to smart manufacturing, smart buildings, smart homes and other fields. With PoE tchnology, cables can transmit up to 90 W of power while transmitting data. The problem of temperature rise (PoE technology makes the temperature of copper conductors rise) has also been mentioned more and more. In addition to the temperature rise of the copper conductor, the service life of the outer sheath of the copper cable after the temperature rise is also a cutting-edge research topic.
The research on the modeled service time of the outer sheath of the copper cable under different PoE temperature ratings is shared by the material manufacturer, Dow (Dow Chemical), at the 2019 academic conference of IWCS（The International Cable Connectivity Symposium).
The research data for the bundled 22 AWG copper cable (the bundled model is omitted here) is as follows:
when the aging temperature (Aging Temp) is 25oC, the predicted service time is 53,587.4 years;
when the aging temperature (Aging Temp) is 60 oC, the predicted service time is 341.9 years;
when the aging temperature (Aging Temp) is 75 oC, the predicted service time is 53.5 years;
when the aging temperature (Aging Temp) is 90oC, the predicted service time is 9.8 years;
IWCS: The International Cable Connectivity Symposium
Zhaolong Interconnect, as a professional cable and connector designer and manufacturer, has participated in IWCS and published many professional papers.
The more densely the twisted pair is twisted, the better performance it will get?
The twisted pair design of twisted-pair cable is to offset part interference by means of physical balance. So the more "balanced" the pair is twisted, the better performance the copper cable will get. But, of course, there are many other factors at play in the final performance.
The lay length of copper cable varies with different grades, such as Cat.5e, Cat.6 and Cat.6A; under different structures such as shielded and unshielded structure, the lay lengths are different, too; the lay lengths of various wiring brands are also different (mainly due to the differences in their respective R&D and production).
The detection of copper cable performance mainly relies on test instruments such as Fluke, choosing Chinese national standards or international ISO standards as the testing standard. Twisting is not the more densely, the better. "Balanced" is the key factor (when judging the performance of lan cables).
Zhaolong Interconnect is a professional cable and connector designer and manufacturer. Our laboratory has obtained China CNAS certification. And our product is of unique design and with excellent performance exceeding standard requirements.
Discussion on the relationship between wiring products and green energy saving
The concept of lights-out data centers has been popular for many years. Traditional data centers "waste" considerable space and energy because they have to provide operating personnel with working environments and conditions.
The concept of the lights-out data center is that if there is no need for staff to operate and maintain, the IT equipment such as racks and servers in the data center will be more compactly deployed, the equipment can run at higher temperatures while significantly reducing cooling costs. And the extraction of oxygen from the air can prevent fires and reduce corrosion.
For the wiring of IT equipment, the International Organization for Standardization（ISO） has recently set up a new topic for discussion. The topic is whether the copper cable system and components can be operated at an ambient temperature of 60 degrees or more.
Zhaolong, a leading domestic cabling research and development and production brand, closely cooperates with China's leading third-party laboratories to discuss the safety performance of copper cables in high-temperature environments and provides solutions for China's green energy conservation.
When the photoelectric hybrid cable is laid in the alpine region, if it is buried in the tundra, what requirements must be met for the product?
It is mainly the selection of the material of the cable. And the material that is resistant to low temperatures should be selected, generally minus forty degrees Celsius. Using special materials, cables can reach minus sixty degrees Celsius. And the coating materials for general optical fibers will not work at low temperatures.
The lowest ambient temperature for optical cables laid in the tundra of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau is about minus thirty to minus forty degrees Celsius. Minus sixty degrees Celsius is extremely cold, and it can occasionally reach this temperature in some northeast regions in our country.
A brief R&D roadmap of unshielded (U/UTP) 10G, Cat.6A copper cable
It has been more than 12 years since the appearance of unshielded (U/UTP) 10Gigabit Cat.6A copper cable in China market since 2008. Zhaolong has launched 4 generation of Cat.6A copper cable. The following shows the R&D roadmap of Zhaolong Cat.6A copper cable.
The first generation: circular sheath, meeting Cat.6A standard for copper cable to achieve 10Gigabit transmission requirement.
The second generation: In order to reduce the O.D of the copper cable, the outer sheath is designed as "outer circle and inner tooth" structure.
The third generation: In order to further reduce the outer diameter of the copper cable, and better improve the anti-electromagnetic interference ability (EMI, EMC) of the unshielded copper cable, speical "gap aluminum foil" material is adopted.
The fourth generation：In order to design a better cost-effective solution, the "double-sided film" materials is adopted.
After 12 years of R&D technology iteration, Zhaolong has the most cost-effective unshielded (U/UTP) 10Gigabit Cat.6A copper cable product on China market. While meeting the transmission performance, it can also better support Power over Ethernet (POE ++) to 90 W. At the same time, it can backward compatible with the latest application levels such as 2.5 Gbps and 5 Gbps. Better protect customer investment and provide product quality guarantee for more than 20 years (20 Years Warranty ).
ISO/IEC JTC1/SC25 WG3 3 Year Plan
1、Revision of ISO/IEC 11801-1, 11801-3 and 11801-6-Amendment (generic 1 pair cabling).
2、ISO/IEC TS 29125 "Remote powering"- Revision (1 pair cabling).
3、Revision of ISO/IEC TR 11801-9903 “Matrix modelling of channels and links”.
4、Technical Report on cabling in support of 25 GBASE-T over 50 m.
5、Revision of ISO/IEC 14763-3 to align with technology developments.
6、Revision of ISO/IEC 30129:2015 “Bonding”.
7、Additional areas for consideration inculde Healthcare and Education.
Zhaolong participates in the standard compilation organization (Beacon Committee), which is the domestic counterpart of integrated wiring international standards, and actively contributes its own data in R&D, manufacturing, experiments and other links. Zhaolong participates in the preparation of national and international standards.
Development trend of next generation cabling solution
The development trend of the next generation cabling solutions have several directions.
Minimization of horizontal copper cable -- further reduce the outer diameter (OD) of copper cable, which can reduce the load-bearing pressure of horizontal cabling tray, put more cable in the pipeline and reduce the cost of pipeline material, so that more cable can be accommodated in tray and without expanding the space of telecom room (TR), easily meet the increase of cabling outlets after IT and OT integration.
Minimization of copper patch cord -- A "Ultra fine outer diameter" design with a minimum of 28 AWG conductors for U/UTP patch cord and a minimum of 30 AWG conductors for shielded patch cord. This spec will easier operate for MAC (move, add, remove) operation, especailly for 48 ports / 1 RU high density copper patch panel.
Patch cord connector reinforced--In order to adapt to the Power over Ethernet(PoE）, especially under high power (60 W or 90 W) connector plug caused by the discharge damage, a stronger connector MPTL is used to instead of the traditional crystal head.
High-density cable--Currently, there are 6,932 ultra-high density cables connected between IDC, making the limitation of pipeline space less important.
Optical connector miniaturization--based on LC connector (horizontal arrangement), optical connector with higher density is redesigned (vertical arrangement, i.e., vertical arrangement) and the density is doubled.
High-density data center MPO/MTP connectors -- on the basis of 12 cores MPO/MTP, a higher density MPO/MTP design is adopted, such as: 16 cores (2*8), 24 cores (2*12), 32 cores (2*16),etc.,which is prepare to application for 100 G/400 G and 800 G the future.
Miniaturization of patch cord -- Through the "one tube and two cores" design scheme,a pair of patch cord are combined into one to meet high-density optical fiber wiring(192 cores /1RU) and provide better MAC operation and maintenance convenience.
Summary: the development trend of wiring products is generally high density, miniaturization, high speed, low loss and so on.
Several interesting research projects for the future development of cabling
The International organization of cabling standards discussed several research projects recently.
1、Physical security of infrastructure, energy efficiency, sensor networks.
2、Impact of 1 pair cabling on other standards committees.
3、Balanced cabling up to 100 Gb/s.
4、Operating temperature of balanced channels and components beyond 60 oC
5、Impact of new wireless communication technologies such as lighting on cabling standards.
6、Sustainablity and cabling systems.
A discussion on the next generation of Wi-Fi standard
2019-2021 will be the years of the 6th generation of Wi-Fi (Wi-Fi 6) goes mainstream. Relevant international organizations are discussing the details of the next generation of Wi-Fi standard. The name of the research project in IEEE Standards Organization is IEEE P802.11 be Extremely High Throughput WLAN (Wi-Fi 7), which is the 7th generation of Wi-Fi. The 7th generation of Wi-Fi can operate in 1 GHz, 7.25 GHz, 2.4 GHz, 5 GHz and 6 GHz, maximum throughput can be 30 Gbps.
The importance of CAT6A in today's network
CAT6A twisted pair copper cable has received widespread attention since its introduction from 2005, but its application has been relatively slow, because the the 6A series cable’s 10G/s flow rate exceeds the requirements of most LAN applications. Now, the times have changed. The data transmission rate of enterprises is constantly rising and more devices are connected to each other than ever before. More and more applications require higher performance and faster speed.
For today's LANs, we're starting to see bandwidth-intensive applications and its network speed requirements are greater than 100 and 1,000 Mb/s.The transmission of large files, such as medical images, high-definition pictures and smooth video, high-definition images and surveillance video, has begun to overwhelm the 5e series and 6A series networks. Think about it, only a group of medical images of a patient has 9,000MB. It is transmitted on a network with a network speed of 1,000MB /s network, it will take one minute. However, it will only take 7 seconds to transmit through a 10 Gb/s network. Now, think about the important role of such a big difference in a remote emergency medical operation.
How much loss will the server downtime cause?
Servers have become an important means of production for enterprise informatization. IDC's global survey results for small and medium-sized companies in multiple industries show nearly 80% of companies expect their hourly costs to be at least $20,000 and more than 20% of them estimate their hourly downtime costs to be at least $100,000.
In March 2015, a 12-hour power outage in the Apple store cost the company US$25 million.
In August 2016, a five-hour power outage occurred in the operations center and Delta Air Lines canceled 2,000 flights, with an estimated loss of US$150 million.
In March 2019, Facebook was shut down of 14 hours and caused approximately US$90 million in losses.
What is edge computing?
Edge computing is a distributed computing concept that integrates intelligence into edge devices (also known as edge nodes), allowing real time processing and analysis of data near the data collection source.
In edge computing, data does not need to be uploaded directly to the cloud or centralized data processing system.
What is MTP/MPO Switch Fiber Patch Cord?
MTP/MPO Switch Fiber Patch Cord have the same fan-out structure as MTP/MPO Branch Fiber Patch cord, but the number and type of fibers are different. Both ends of the MTP/MPO Switch Fiber Patch Cord are MTP/MPO connectors, suitable for high-density wiring, such as 10G-40G/40G-40G/40G-100G/40G-120G network connection, which can effectively avoid fiber waste and greatly increase the space utilization and flexibility of existing Base-12 and Base-24 MTP/MPO structured wiring.
What places are MPO Fiber Patch Cord mainly used in?
MPO Fiber Patch Cord can be used in optical fiber communication system, cable television network, telecommunication network, local area network, wide area network, communication base station cabling, cabling box and optical link interconnection in optical active equipment, etc.
MPO Fiber Patch Cord is made up of hot-plug type MPO connectors and multi-mode/single-mode fiber cables. MPO optical fiber connector includes optical fiber, sheath, coupling assembly, metal ring, pin, dust cap, etc..Moreover, the pin part is divided into male head and female head in two forms. The male connector has two PIN pins, while the female connector does not. MPO Fiber Patch Cord has the characteristics of low insertion loss, good interchangeability and insertion and extraction, and a large number of fiber cores etc.. It is widely used in optical fiber cabling scenarios requiring high density integration.