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Standard Study & Alliance Participation

Part 1   Analysis of International Standards
1、Updated standards for Ethernet
The IEEE P802.3cg Draft version 3.4 has been approved by IEEE-SA.
IEEE 802.3cg defines a physical layer interface specification for data transmission of 10 Mb/s by using a single twisted-pair system, and supports power delivery via PoDL technology.

2、Standards for high-speed transmission

From a global perspective, since the birth of high-speed interconnect transmission standards, the transmission rate has been continuously improved, from the initial 2Gbps, 3.2Gbps, 10Gbps, to 100Gbps. In September 2018, IEEE802.3 Work Group released the 200Gbps standards, and the Ethernet standards for 400Gbps rate is under development. In the application of 5G communication systems, the transmission and exchange of big data requires that the rate of high-speed interconnect products must reach 200Gbps or even 400Gbps.
3、Standards for railway locomotives 

Although the domestic standards involve network communication data cables, only including the performance requirements for CAT5 with a bandwidth of 100MHz, which supports data transmission of up to 1000Mbps. 
With the development of mobile communications, especially with the development of 5G,
CAT6A (or above) cables must become the mainstream. However, there are no provisions for cables above CAT5e in the standards for railway locomotive cables.

Part 2   Participation in the Preparation of White Papers & Standard Development
On May 28 2018, the meeting for preparation of the "White Paper for POE Technology and Application" organized by SAC/TC 28/SC 25 was successfully held in Beijing. Zhejiang Zhaolong Interconnect Technology Co., Ltd. (hereinafter referred to as Zhaolong) attended the meeting and undertook the task of writing chapters in the white paper about elements of system design, performance indicators, product selection and configuration, etc. The white paper was released in October of that year.

In February 2019, Zhaolong was invited to participate in the "White Paper for Data Center Network System Technology" organized by China Data Center Committee (CDCC) of China Association for Engineering Construction Standardization (CECS). 

In April 2019, Zhaolong was invited to participate in the "White Paper for 400G Network Cabling Technology" organized by the Cablingteam (CTEAM) of China Association for Engineering Construction Standardization (CECS).

Part 3   Ethernet Alliance Participation
Zhaolong Interconnect participates in the New In-Vehicle High-Speed Network (NIVN) Working Group of China Industry Innovation Alliance for the Intelligent and Connected Vehicles  (CAICV).

The purpose of the Working Group is to promote the ecological development of the domestic new in-vehicle high-speed network. While carrying out the new in-vehicle high-speed network technology and testing standardization, the Working Group will promote the innovation and prospective study,   to improve product quality and consistency, carry out testing verification, promote industrial cooperation and industrial research, strengthen academic exchanges and enhance the communication and cooperation with the related domestic and international standardization institutes.

In addition to the domestic working group of In-vehicle Ethernet,
Zhaolong Interconnect also participates in the research of In-vehicle Ethernet technology by Open Alliance.

SPE-Industrial Partner Network is led by companies such as HARTING, TE, HIROSE, WürthElektronik, etc.. It is an organizational alliance that promotes the development of the Industrial Internet of Things (IIoT) with Single-pair Ethernet technology as the key technology.

 Zhaolong Interconnect is one of the senior members of SPE-Industrial Partner Network. Single Pair Ethernet (SPE) is an Ethernet transmission technology using only a pair of copper wires. In addition to data transmission via Ethernet, SPE can also supply power to terminal devices through PoDL (Power over Data Lines). SPE opens up new possibilities and applications for Industrial Ethernet and it will be one of the key technologies of the Internet of Everything (IoE). Zhaolong, as the promoter of SPE technology, will lead the technology trend!
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  • High frequency conductors

    With the phenomenon of Skin Effect through high-frequency signal transmission, we have studied the influence of plating materials on high-frequency signals through the selection of var ious conductor materials, and mastered the characteristics of silver-plated copper conductors which are of obvious advantages in terms of the comprehensive price-quality ratio. Meanwhile, the attenuation loss of high-frequency signal transmission are greatly reducd, making the cable of the same specification   with a longer length application.


  • Alloy copper conductor materials
    The research on alloy copper materials has achieved the purpose of improving the tensile strength and fatigue resistance of the conductor, and provided a solution to improving the tensile strength and bending resistance of the cables. It also provides a solution for the production of micro cables.
  • Through the continuous exploration, we have mastered the application of the characteristics of fluoroplastics and key technologies such as its processing technology in the research process of FEP, PE, PP and other insulating dielectric materials. With excellent low loss, high temperature resistance, fatigue resistance , environmental resistance, etc., the products are of superior performance by using the materials in high-frequency high-speed wires, micro coaxial and medical related cables, and industrial applications related products.
  • For low-temperature hot-melt aluminum foil and hot-melt PET tape materials, with low-temperature glue hot-melt adhesion, the structure of the tape and insulated single-wire is more fixed and stable, which can better solve the the signal variability caused by the unstable structure change in the bending and twisting process of high-speed cables.
  • Using high-temperature and low-dielectric materials with extremely low dielectric constant and excellent weather fastness, the signal transmission attenuation in high-speed cables and the outer diameter of cables are reduced, so cables are easier to install and bend in integrated wiring in data centers. In the applications of industrial cables, the purpose of increasing the insulation while ensuring the flexibility of the cable core is achieved, and a solution is provided for the problem of the cable core being soft due to the use of insulating tape.
  • Through the research on fluorine-based insulating materials, we have mastered the solid-core and foaming processing technology, providing solutions to the design and optimization for electrical performance, transmission performance (high-speed cables), mechanical performance (cables for fatigue-resistant applications), chemical resistance (cables used in special harsh environments such as strong acids and alkalis), high temperature resistance (aerospace cables), high flame retardant requirements (such as Class P flame retardant), thin-wall requirements (micro and medical cables), low friction and excellent biocompatibility ( such as anti-ant, anti-rodent bite).
  • To achieve the high flame retardant effect, the low smoke and halogen free materials with conventional high flame resistance are of higher hardness. Thus the extremely hard jacketing materials cause the cable itself to be hard, which is difficult to bend during the cabling process in data centers, increasing the difficulty of cabling. Zhaolong has mastered the application of flexible flame-retardant, low smoke and halogen free soft jacketing materials after continuous exploration, which makes the cable more flexible for processing and cabling while meeting the UL flame retardant standard.
  • Due to the flexibility and high-strength of aramid, the strength of the conductors is enhanced by adding aramid yarn to fill in the stranded conductors, providing a solution to improving the tensile strength and bending resistance of cable conductors. In addition, we add aramid yarn during the cabling process of the multi-core cable to achieve the purpose of improving the roundness and tensile strength of the cable, which provides a solution for the roundness and tensile strength performance of the cable.
  • Having mastered the insulation foaming technology,  the insulation layer is of lower dielectric constant, providing a solution to improving the transmission performance (such as low attenuation/low delay) of the cable; on the premise of ensuring the same characteristic impedance, the cable can have smaller outer diameter of the insulation, providing a solution for the small diameter of the cable.
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    Using silver-plated copper conductors and combined with single-pair aluminum foil longitudinal wrapping shielding technology, the cable transmission attenuation frequency can support the next-generation single-channel with NRZ (Non-Return to Zero) maximum transmission rate up to 56Gbps, and for 16P 8-channel structure, the NRZ maximum rate is over 400Gbps.
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    Small intra-pair skew & inter-pair skew, and high synchronization of signal transmission.
    The dual-conductor co-extrusion design structure greatly reduces the intra-pair skew, to make the signal transmission  more stable, effectively solving the loss of signal transmission data packet, image distortion, delay of information exchange and other problems.
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    Generally, there will be periodic changes in the operation of the equipment, and these periodic changes will probably affect some high-frequency indicators. Through continuous research, Zhaolong has mastered the the technology of single pair in aluminum foil parallel longitudinal wrapping to reduce the periodic changes due to wrapping and improve the signal transmission bandwidth.
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    Through the research on materials, structures and processes and combined with many years of experience in cable design, Zhaolong has optimized the design of Ethernet cables in terms of mobility (material selection and structural design), protection (material selection and structural design), chemical resistance/weather resistance (material selection) and electromagnetic compatibility (such as shielding structural design), to meet the requirements of different application scenarios.
Innovations and new technologies
  • Constant Tension 100% Back-twist Technology

    Planetary stranders with the constant tension control system can achieve 100% back-twist for high-end flexible products. For high-end drag chain cables, robot cables and other products that require long-term stable operation and use, the 100% back-twist technology must be used to ensure that the cable will not fail in the process where the cable requires long-term bending and moving.
  • Applied Technology of Materials for Robot Cables
    The materials used for robot cables generally have the characteristics of high tensile strength, high resilience, high oil resistance, low temperature flexibility, and good abrasion resistance. These characteristics determine that the materials are of large fluidity and viscosity. So the extrusion equipment and technical process for these materials need to be optimized. We have completed mastering the extrusion technology of materials for robot cables, which can meet different customers' requirements for the characteristics and performance of the cables.
  • Applied Technology of the Design and Manufacturing of Robot Cables 
    Robot cables generally refer to the connecting lines used in or around the arms of the industrial robot. Robot cables are the "vessels of the industrial robot" for the industrial robot. The quality of robot cables will affect the safe operation of the entire robot system. The designers of robot cables must have a deep technical foundation and accumulation, and must be deep into the robot industry to understand the applications and motion laws of robots, and then make an assessment of the selection of cable materials, product structure design, application scenarios (bending resistance, torsion resistance , U-shaped drag chain resistance) and so on.
  • Professional spirit
    We have an excellent technical team, which can be designed according to customers requirements.
  • Professional quality
    Based on the conventional data cables, Zhaolong has successfully developed the high-flexibility CAT6A data cables, realizing the real-time transmission of 10 Gigabit data and large-capacity visual data of high-speed mobile cameras, which can be applied to the field of industrial visual monitoring. It provides a stable bridge for industrial automation applications and data transmission.
  • Fire Retardant Technology for Data Cables

    The application of fire-resistant tapes with stable crust performance to data cables can effectively improve the accuracy of rescue in fires, and the status of fires can be confirmed through video systems.
Connectors & Assemblies
1、 The performance of connectors is one of the key factors for the performance of the transmission system, which directly affects the overall signal integrity of the system.
2、Zhaolong R & D team uses mature electromagnetic simulation software to design and evaluate the connector product solutions. Not only the traditional differential mode transmission parameters, but also the pros & cons of the differential-common mode conversion parameters and alien crosstalk parameters can be evaluated during the structural design stage. Accurate and efficient simulation enables Zhaolong Interconnect to design RJ45 connectors, M12 connectors and high-speed connectors that respectively comply with IEC 60603-7, IEC 61076-2 and SFF 86xx Series Standards.
3、Connector products shall be tested according to the most stringent standards by Zhaolong Lab, even exceeding the requirements of the common industry standards in the test. For example, an additional test will be done on devices to test the performance under the extended test indicators. In order to better feedback the performance of devices to the R & D team, Zhaolong Lab deeply researched the principles and steps of various tests to develop the test methods and processes for other important parameters related to the performance of devices on this basis. These additional test results effectively help the R & D team to further understand the the performance of devices in the continuous improvement of product quality.
  • The design of circuit pad
    According to engineering experience, the design of the circuit  pad with reference to the plane hollowing, is for the continuity of impedance, and reducing the stray capacitance between the pad and the reference plane. Blocking capacitor is the common source of the impedance discontinuties in high-speed serial channels.
  • Design of High Speed Differential Line Via
    Signals of transmitting path of any tiny discontinuous physical geometry will significantly reduce the signal quality, including the signal amplitude of the signal rise time reduction and the increase of the jitter, therefore zhaolong high-speed team in identifying these discontinuous points in the high speed channel, and provides the method to reduce the impact, including components fabrication plate, connector and the signal perforation layer change can cause impedance discontinuity and the change of the flow path. In this case, the additional ground through hole design of the signal line provides a continuous backflow path, which reduces the parasitic effect of the through hole and improves the signal quality, such as reduced attenuation jitter and crosstalk between channels.
  • Back drilling technology
    Controlled depth drilling (CDD), also known as back drilling. The unused copper cylinder or bifurcated short wire is removed from the through hole of the printed circuit board. When the high-speed signal is transmitted between PCB layers through a copper cylinder, distortion will occur. If there is a bifurcated short wire in the signal layer, and the short wire is long, distortion will become a serious problem. The zhaolong team can re-drill these holes with a slightly larger drill after manufacturing is complete, removing bifurcated short lines. Drill the back of the hole to a controlled depth, close to but not touching the last layer used through the hole. Considering the manufacturing and material difference, brought back hole left short-term to 7 mil, ideal remaining short line length should be less than 10 mi, effective when the characteristic impedance rise time 35 ps can control within the plus or minus 5 Ω.
  • PCB fiberglass effect
    Zhaolong high-speed material control team in PCB base material plate factory, glass fiber cloth according to the width of the width of weft and warp and weft yarn clearances between, and the clearance between the warp numbered definition, glass fiber cloth for signal mainly comes from the dielectric constant, the influence of overlapping structure design and material selection through experience and electromagnetic simulation, to reduce the impedance of the transmission line two, to reduce risks such as impedance mismatch and signal transmission speed is different (internally and to delay), and to improve the bypass decoupling capacitor and the parasitic inductance problem.
  • Length and layout of high speed circuit
    High-speed wiring is critical to the optimal signal integrity performance of the circuit board. Zhaolong team used high-speed calculation software control line width to minimize walk line impedance tolerance, while maintaining enough intervals in order to prevent crosstalk, power supply and ground loop must be far away from the cracks or voids may interrupt signal circuit, differential pairs and measuring circuit must be within the tolerance range, in the process of design, in order to maintain a good signal integrity, designers follow the design rules and constraints of PCB design tools, can make the products reach association specification and there will be a signal channel to achieve consistency
  • The overall design of high-speed channel
    At present, the bandwidth of the SerDes single channel, which is fastest,  has reached 112Gbps, and supports PAM4 coding. Therefore, in the entire system, the realization of high-speed signal cabling will face many design challenges. And the design of the R & D team of Zhaolong High-speed Interconnect Business Group requires an overall analysis of the signal channel path.
System Integration
A complete communication channel includes multiple assemblies such as horizontal cables, connecting devices, and patch cords, etc.. When these assemblies are connected together, there will be additional interactive coupling between the assemblies, which will have a non-negligible effect on the transmission parameters of the system. Especially in solution of cabling system, which is for short distance and many nodes, the intercoupling between assemblies will even greatly affect the overall performance of the system.
Zhaolong Interconnect has fully considered the influence between assemblies when designing system products, and deeply understands the common-mode noise caused by mismatch in the cabling system and the additional influence of the alien crosstalk parameters on the green wire pair. On the basis, Zhaolong Interconnect formulated more stringent performance indexs for connectors to minimize node reflections and reduce common mode noise, ensuring that the system of Zhaolong interconnect can still meet requirements of system parameter even in the worst case, short distance and many node.